Kellner and Wiedemann studied adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in 2 healthy volunteers who experienced a first-ever panic attack during lactate infusion. No adrenocorticotropic hormone response was found despite the novelty of this experience.
In our extensive experience with 52 volunteers given lactate infusions, only 1 had a panic attack. In this subject, like in our patients with panic disorder, there was a slight decrement in baseline cortisol measures during the panic period despite the usual signs of vegetative arousal.
Klein DF. Nonresponse of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in First-Ever Lactate-Induced Panic Attacks in Healthy Volunteers. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(1):86. doi: