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In Reply We thank Tsai and Venkataramani for their comments, which raise important methodological issues and challenge the findings presented in our article.1 They reconstructed the data set and stated that the association found between psychiatric bed numbers and prison populations disappears once they adjusted for year fixed effects or linear time trends.
Mundt AP, Chow WS, Priebe S. Testing the Penrose Hypothesis—Reply. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(7):736. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0217