Our ability to predict who will develop schizophrenia is at its nascent stages. No genes of major effect have been identified. Studies of care-seeking individuals who are at high risk based on the presence of certain symptoms and functional or cognitive manifestations are able to predict with 35% likelihood the onset of psychosis within the next year or 2,1 but early detection and disease prediction is unachievable in most cases.
Keefe RSE, Reichenberg A. Predicting Schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(5):441-442. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0138