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February 1962

Sex Chromosomes in Male Schizophrenics

Author Affiliations

Department of Pathology, Massachusetts Memorial Hospitals, Boston, and the Research Service, Medfield State Hospital, Harding, Mass.
This study was subsidized by Grant No. M-4276 (A) from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1962;6(2):109-111. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1962.01710200001001

The life history of the schizophrenic patient is usually fraught with difficulties in the sexual sphere, particularly in the establishment of meaningful heterosexual relations. According to classic analytic literature, the schizophrenic psychosis results from conflict and confusion in bisexual identification.1 The paranoid reaction, particularly, is regarded as a defense against homosexuality, in many instances. The subconscious preoccupation with sex is clearly shown in Rorschach studies where frankly sexual—often chaotic—answers predominate and where a greater number of homosexual signs appear than in nonparanoid psychotics or normal subjects.2

The results of gonadal endocrine studies have been generally inconclusive, though the findings of Hoskins and Pincus3 are of interest. They noted that schizophrenic men had a lower androgen and a higher estrogen output than normal men; and that the mean androgen-estrogen ratio of the schizophrenic men (9.7) lay about half-way between the mean

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