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March 1966

Ego Functions and Dreaming During Sleep Onset

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Psychiatry, the University of Chicago, Chicago. Dr. Foulkes is now at the Department of Psychology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1966;14(3):238-248. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1966.01730090014003

IN THE PAST ten years the work of Aserinsky, Kleitman, and Dement1-3 has shown that by the EEG/EOG (electrooculogram) there are two different kinds of sleep, which, under ordinary circumstances, cyclically alternate throughout the night. One of these is emergent stage 1 EEG (a low-voltage, fast, random pattern) accompanied by intermittent bursts of rapid eye movements (REM). The second kind of sleep has no rapid eye movements (NREM) and is characterized electroencephalographically by 12-14 cps spindles without α-waves (stage 2) or with 3-6 cps α-waves (stages 3 and 4). In an ordinary night's sleep subjects begin with 1½ hours of NREM sleep which then gives way to about 10-15 minutes of REM sleep. A total of 3-7 cycles of alternating NREM and REM sleep compose a night's sleep, with REM sleep taking up progressively more of each cycle. In terms of mental activity

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