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June 1969

Types of Hopelessness in Psychopathological Process

Author Affiliations

Stanford, Calif; London
From the Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif (Dr. Melges), and the Department for Children and Parents, The Tavistock Clinic, Belsize Lane, London (Dr. Bowlby).

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1969;20(6):690-699. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1969.01740180074007

It is memory that gives us the power of foresight: We push into the future with images in which we fixed the past. Full consciousness therefore looks both ways, and its most important look ... is into the future. All biological processes are directed toward the future, but man is distinguished by being consciously directed−his consciousness includes the future. J. Bronowski1