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September 1969

Stage 4 Sleep in Schizophrenia

Author Affiliations

Brooklyn, NY; Columbia, Mo; Los Angeles
From the Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (Dr. Feinberg and Miss Braun); the Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo (Mr. Koresko); and the Department of Psychiatry, UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles (Dr. Gottlieb).

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1969;21(3):262-266. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1969.01740210006002

THE stage 4 EEG (employing the Dement and Kleitman1 nomenclature) of sleep, as measured in our laboratory, consists of high-voltage (over 50V) slow (under 4 cycles per second) activity occurring with a stipulated density (over 16 waves per 20second epoch, or over 50% of the epoch occupied by such slow waves). Stage 3 EEG represents a lesser density (10 to 16 waves per 20-second epoch) of this slow-wave activity. Stage 3 and 4 EEG constitute, along with spindles and K-complexes, the distinguishing features of nonrapid eye-movement (NREM) or slow-wave sleep. Both stage 3 and 4 EEG are maximal during the first few hours of sleep1 and their distributions across the night may usefully be described as a function of the successive sleep cycles.2

Stage 4 EEG reaches its highest level in early childhood3 and then shows a hyper

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