The 24 hour urinary excretion of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) was studied in a series of 40 patients with affective disorders and in ten normal controls. The depressed patients were divided into two groups, severely and moderately depressed. Manic patients excreted the most cyclic AMP; the severely depressed excreted the least; and the controls and moderately depressed patients showed intermediate values. In longitudinal studies of four depressed patients treated with levodopa, marked increases in urinary cyclic AMP excretion occurred. Patients treated with lithium carbonate showed changes in cyclic AMP excretion in the direction of clinical change, ie, as depression improved, cyclic AMP excretion increased and as mania improved it diminished. Factors which may influence the excretion of urinary cyclic AMP are presented.
Paul MI, Cramer H, Goodwin FK. Urinary Cyclic AMP Excretion in Depression and ManiaEffects of Levodopa and Lithium Carbonate. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1971;24(4):327-333. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1971.01750100037005