A specialized inpatient unit for the treatment of addiction was developed in a general hospital. Architectural considerations were important in the planning of the unit to assure control over outpatient traffic to and from the unit. The tendency of hospitalized narcotic addicts to form an antitherapeutic patient subculture was reduced by developing a special staffing pattern in which ex-addicts were given equal responsibility with nurses for operation of the unit.
Hughes P, Chappel J, Senay E, Jaffe J. Developing Inpatient Services for Community-Based Treatment of Narcotic Addiction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1971;25(3):278-283. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1971.01750150086013