In order to present an empirically derived two-dimensional representation of alcoholic symptomology, correlations among 30 behavioral and biological alcoholism variables were subjected to Guttman-Lingoes nonmetric factor analysis and monotone distance analysis. The factor analysis provided a relatively distortion-free solution with ten factors and the distance analysis provided a two-dimensional graphline representation in which six of the ten factors were easily discernible. Contiguous regions in the graphical representation depicted four salient aspects of alcoholic symptomatology: (1) emotional state variables, (2) enzyme variables, (3) perceptual motor and intellectual variables, and (4) liver function variables and age. These results suggested a progression of disease symptoms in which increased enzyme activity might not be accompanied by intellectual de terioration, but in which such deterioration would be a probable concomitant of advanced biological disease.
Layden TA, Smith JW. Nonmetric Pattern Analysis of Behavioral and Biological Disease Symptoms in Alcoholism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973;28(2):246-249. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1973.01750320076012