Seventy-six patients undergoing major cardiac surgery were studied. An 11-item Behavior Checklist was obtained for the 58 patients observed postoperatively. Factor analysis of the checklist yielded two factors: Orientation, including Alertness, Orientation, Appropriateness, and an Absence of Confusion and Agitation and Dysphoria including Anxiety, Depression, Agitation, Complaints, and Delusions.
The orientation factor significantly correlated with: (1) preoperative absence of organic brain syndrome; (2) lower mortality; (3) earlier discharge; and (4) absence of complications (all P<.01). Age, sex, length of disability, and estimated risk did not correlate. The dysphoria factor correlated significantly with: (1) complications (P <.01); (2) was not related to preoperative depression; or (3) emotional stability.
Quinlan DM, Kimball CP, Osborne F. The Experience of Open Heart SurgeryIV. Assessment of Disorientation and Dysphoria Following Cardiac Surgery. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1974;31(2):241-244. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1974.01760140089016