A small group model was used to examine the effects of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride on affective and behavioral hostility in a social interactive setting. Three-person groups of male volunteers completed paper-and-pencil affective-rating scales individually and interacted with each other during a ten-minute discussion period that was videotaped and scored for behavioral hostility. The results indicated that chlordiazepoxide was associated with an increase in individual affective but not behavioral hostility. However, when a frustration stimulus was presented to the group, interpersonal behavioral hostility was increased in those who received chlordiazepoxide as compared with those taking a placebo. The data suggest that increases in hostility may be a regular rather than paradoxical effect of chlordiazepoxide. However, overt hostility may only become apparent in settings of interpersonal frustration.
Salzman C, Kochansky GE, Shader RI, Porrino LJ, Harmatz JS, Swett CP. Chlordiazepoxide-Induced Hostility in a Small Group Setting. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1974;31(3):401-405. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1974.01760150103015