April 1976

Another View of Schizophrenia SubtypesA Report From the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia

Author Affiliations

From the Psychiatric Assessment Section (Dr Carpenter and Ms Carpenter) and Biometry Branch (Dr Bartko). National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md, and the Department of Psychiatry (Dr Strauss), University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY. Dr Carpenter and Ms Carpenter are now with the Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976;33(4):508-516. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770040068012

• Schizophrenia subtypes are defined predominantly by manifest symptoms and behavior. This report, based on sign and symptom data from the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia, addresses three questions: (1) Are traditional subtype diagnoses applied similarly across cultures? (2) Are the various traditional subtypes symptomatically distinguishable from one another? (3) Can cluster analytic techniques define a more distinctive set of schizophrenic subgroups?

Present State Examination data were reduced to 27 psychopathologic signs and symptoms. Profile analysis of variance results indicate that each subtype appears similar, regardless of center of origin. However, this is based on a lack of distinguishing features between different subtypes. On the other hand, when a cluster analytic technique was used, it showed one large and three small subgroups, each readily distinguishable from the others. These subgroups, labeled "usual," "flagrant," "insightful," and "hypochondriacal," are described clinically. If replicated or validated, such subgroups may prove meaningful in future considerations of subdivisions of the schizophrenia syndrome.