• The feasibility and effects of treating psychoneurotic outpatients with concomitant but separate treatment programs of psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and behavior therapy was investigated in three cases, utilizing detailed clinical observations and questionnaire responses. The two treatment regimens appeared to have synergistic effects, and anticipated difficulties, such as a split therapeutic alliance, symptom substitution, or precipitous withdrawal from psychotherapy after symptom removal, did not occur. Although there was no evidence of symptom substitution after the behavioral removal of the "target symptom," both clinical observations and questionnaire responses indicated that successful behavior therapy had many unanticipated effects on the patient's nontarget behaviors and cognitions.
Segraves RT, Smith RC. Concurrent Psychotherapy and Behavior TherapyTreatment of Psychoneurotic Outpatients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976;33(6):756-763. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770060076011