• A prospective, six-year follow-up investigation of 66 convicted female felons indicated that psychiatric, social, and familial factors defined and measured at the time of the index study affected the rate of criminal recidivism.
Wide individual variation in the course of female criminality was observed. Prolonged supervision on parole or probation appeared to have therapeutic benefit. The most powerful predictors of recidivism were the diagnoses of drug dependence and antisocial personality, and a history of homosexuality. Familial criminality and maternal hysteria were also associated with an increased risk of serious and persistent recidivism. Educational, marital, and employment status contributed to a lesser extent, while race and type of index offense were only significant (P <.05) when minor offenses were considered.
Martin RL, Cloninger CR, Guze SB. Female Criminality and the Prediction of RecidivismA Prospective Six-Year Follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978;35(2):207-214. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770260085010