• Several dimensions of psychological functioning of bipolar manic-depressives in remission were investigated. The following hypotheses were examined: (1) During remission, these individuals exhibit psychological maladjustment or a lack of positive mental health. (2) Bipolar manic-depressives are characterized by strong external orientations. The Personal Orientation Inventory, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Levenson's Internal and Powerful Others Locus of Control Scales, and the Embedded Figures Test were administered to matched groups of 35 bipolar manic-depressives and 35 normal comparison subjects. Discriminant analysis disclosed no significant differences between the two groups on measures of positive mental health and on measures of external orientation. The relationship between these results and the etiology and treatment of manicdepressive disorder is briefly discussed, as well as the contradiction these findings pose to current views of this disorder pervasive among professional and lay populations.
MacVane JR, Lange JD, Brown WA. Psychological Functioning of Bipolar Manic-Depressives in Remission. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978;35(11):1351-1354. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770350077007