• Careful clinical formulation describing the dimensions of core neurotic conflicts is integral to the practice of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Therefore, a method for reliable and valid formulation is a necessary precursor for the empirical investigation of the impact of such therapy. Our study evaluated a method of outcome assessment based on clinical formulations. Results from 18 patients indicate that independently derived formulations of a central conflict do not agree and that these disagreements in formulation are reflected in disagreements in the change ratings that are based on them. Additional analyses suggested that symptomatic change represents the major component in outcome rating.
DeWitt KN, Kaltreider NB, Weiss DS, Horowitz MJ. Judging Change in PsychotherapyReliability of Clinical Formulations. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1983;40(10):1121-1128. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790090083013