• Psychosocial environment and relationships with parents, peers, and siblings of 115 prepubertal children were measured by interview with their parent(s) for the three-month period preceding the assessment. The children had a current diagnosis of major depression (52 children) or nondepressed neurotic disorder (23) or were assessed to be normal (40). Most aspects of psychosocial relationships were found to be significantly impaired in the psychiatric groups. This impairment was generally worse in the depressives and significantly worse for aspects of verbal and affective communication with parents and siblings. Prepubertal children with major depressive disorder regularly present social relation deficits in which two components can be distinguished: (1) one general to childhood psychiatric disorder and (2) another specific to major depression.
Puig-Antich J, Lukens E, Davies M, Goetz D, Brennan-Quattrock J, Todak G. Psychosocial Functioning in Prepubertal Major Depressive DisordersI. Interpersonal Relationships During the Depressive Episode. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42(5):500-507. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790280082008