• Urinary monoamines and metabolites as well as plasma norepinephrine (NE) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol were measured in 14 boys (mean age, 9.2 years) with Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity during an initial placebo period, after four weeks of treatment with either dextroamphetamine sulfate (N = 5) or a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (N =9) and at the end of a subsequent two-week placebo "washout" period. Both dextroamphetamine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors produced persistent changes in monoamines and metabolites, which were most marked and consistent for NE and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. These changes did not correlate in a consistent fashion with clinical response during drug treatment. Moreover, there was rapid clinical relapse following cessation of either treatment while the alterations in NE metabolism remained during the two weeks following drug, further demonstrating the independence of these changes from clinical state. Future studies with dextroamphetamine need drug-free periods that are greater than 14 days to obtain true "baseline" conditions.
Zametkin A, Rapoport JL, Murphy DL, Linnoila M, Karoum F, Potter WZ, Ismond D. Treatment of Hyperactive Children With Monoamine Oxidase InhibitorsII. Plasma and Urinary Monoamine Findings After Treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42(10):969-973. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790330049006