• Ten patients with major depression and ten age- and sexmatched normal controls were presented with two contrasting cognitive tasks: one required sustained effort and information processing, and the other required only superficial information processing that could be accomplished automatically, with little effort. Depressed patients performed more poorly only on the effort-demanding cognitive task.
Roy-Byrne PP, Weingartner H, Bierer LM, Thompson K, Post RM. Effortful and Automatic Cognitive Processes in Depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1986;43(3):265-267. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800030083008