• Recent developments in artificial intelligence use computer simulations of complex neural systems to model associative memory and gestalt-seeking during cognition. Perturbations imposed on such computer simulations caused catastrophic breakdowns of neural functioning. The resulting cognitive disturbances assumed two forms, one "schizophreniclike" and the other "maniclike." The former was induced by memory overload and resulted in misperceptions, loose associations, and also parasitic processing states that pathologically controlled the flow of associations. The latter was caused by increased randomness of neural activity, which induced "jumps" from one gestalt to another. The relationship between this differential model of psychotic disturbances and other studies of schizophrenia and mania were explored.
Hoffman RE. Computer Simulations of Neural Information Processing and the Schizophrenia-Mania Dichotomy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44(2):178-188. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800140090014