• Patients studied at peak severity of a manic episode showed substantial degrees of depression (dysphoria) and anxiety. Compared with nondysphoric manics (n = 26), the dysphoric manics (n = 22) had a significantly greater number of previous hospitalizations, and they displayed less rapid cycling both in the year before and during the index hospitalization admission. The severity of manic dysphoria tended to correlate with the number of previous hospitalizations, a finding that was highly significant in women (n = 27). Medication-free manic patients (n = 22) had significant elevations in cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine concentrations compared with depressed and euthymic patients and normal volunteers, and the degree of elevation correlated significantly with the degree of manic dysphoria, anger, and anxiety rated at the time of the lumbar puncture. Patients with dysphoric mania, recognized by Kraepelin to have poor prognoses, have been reported to respond poorly to lithium carbonate but may be among those who respond to carbamazepine. Clinical, biologic, and pharmacologic response characteristics of manic subgroups, particularly those with extreme dysphoric components to their illness, appear to be clinically meaningful and deserving of further investigation.
Post RM, Rubinow DR, Uhde TW, Roy-Byrne PP, Linnoila M, Rosoff A, Cowdry R. Dysphoric ManiaClinical and Biological Correlates. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46(4):353–358. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810040059009