• In a sample of 298 cocaine abusers seeking inpatient (n = 149) or outpatient (n = 149) treatment, rates of psychiatric disorders were determined by means of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Overall, 55.7% met current and 73.5% met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder other than a substance use disorder. In common with previous reports from clinical samples of cocaine abusers, these overall rates were largely accounted for by major depression, minor bipolar conditions (eg, hypomania, cyclothymic personality), anxiety disorders, antisocial personality, and history of childhood attention deficit disorder. Affective disorders and alcoholism usually followed the onset of drug abuse, while anxiety disorders, antisocial personality, and attention deficit disorder typically preceded drug abuse.
Rounsaville BJ, Anton SF, Carroll K, Budde D, Prusoff BA, Gawin F. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Treatment-Seeking Cocaine Abusers. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48(1):43-51. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810250045005