In a case-control cross-sectional study, Kubota and coauthors investigate thalamocortical connectivity in schizophrenia and examine its possible association with cortical thinning in vivo.
To examine the reproductive fitness of patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders vs their unaffected siblings, Power et al studied 2.3 million individuals among the 1950 to 1970 birth cohort in Sweden. Fertility ratios, reflecting the mean number of children compared with that of the general population, were calculated, accounting for age, sex, family size, and affected status.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, Raison and coauthors determine whether inhibition of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor reduces depressive symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant depression and whether an increase in baseline plasma inflammatory biomarkers predicts treatment response.
Georgiades and colleagues prospectively investigated the emergence of autisticlike traits in unaffected (no autism spectrum disorder [ASD] diagnosis) infant siblings of probands diagnosed as having ASD. The study included 170 high-risk (siblings of probands with ASD) and 90 low-risk (subjects with no family history of ASD) children, none of whom were diagnosed as having ASD at age 3 years.
Suzuki and coworkers performed a case-control study using PET and a radiotracer to identify brain regions associated with excessively activated microglia in the whole brain and to examine similarities in the pattern of distribution of activated microglia in subjects with ASD and control subjects.
Ecker et al investigate regional differences in cortical volume, surface area, and cortical thickness as well as their relationship in a large and well-characterized sample of men with autism spectrum disorder and matched controls. In a related editorial, Dawson provides commentary.
Volk and coauthors examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution, air quality, and autism. See the editorial by Dawson.
Using a population-based twin registry, Kendler et al determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for conduct disorder.
Doehrmann et al measure brain activation in patients with social anxiety disorder as a biomarker to predict subsequent response to cognitive behavioral therapy.
Haghighi and colleagues conducted a cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort to examine whether prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) is associated with enhanced fat intake and risk for obesity, and whether these associations may be related to subtle structural variations in brain regions involved in reward processing.
Fusar-Poli and coauthors conducted a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the construct of a clinical high-risk state for psychosis in which relevant articles were discussed by consensus by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field.