DURING THE MID to late nineteenth century, numerous unorthodox medical practices and alternative therapies arose. Among the more influential of these sectarian groups were the eclectics, who used only botanical preparations in the treatment of disease and for preoperative and postoperative care. Although there were various branches of eclecticism, mainly located throughout the American Midwest, the most politically influential faction settled in Cincinnati, where 2 eclectic medical institutes were organized. It was to this city that Andrew Jackson Howe would move, becoming the leading eclectic surgeon of his era.
Rutkow IM. Andrew Jackson Howe (1825-1892) and Eclectic Surgery. Arch Surg. 2002;137(9):1081-1082. doi:10.1001/archsurg.137.9.1081