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Surgical Anatomy
October 2002

October 2002

Arch Surg. 2002;137(10):1173. doi:10.1001/archsurg.137.10.1173

Pectus excavatum is a congenital malformation caused by a deformity of the costal cartilages (fifth through eighth), which develop abnormally in a concave manner, pushing the sternum posteriorly. This chest deformity is most severe at the xiphoid.

Source: Blackbourne LH, Fleischer KJ, eds. Advanced Surgical Recall. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1997:846.

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