The laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), the endoscopic pneumatic dilation (PD), and the endoscopic botulinum toxin type A injection have been the main treatment modalities for achalasia in the past 25 years. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a newer treatment modality and an important advance and innovation for the treatment of achalasia. POEM allows the endoscopic division of the muscle fibers of the lower esophagus and proximal stomach, therefore coupling the minimal invasiveness of endoscopy to the therapeutic goal of a surgical myotomy.
Fisichella PM, Ferreres A, Patti MG. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia. JAMA Surg. 2015;150(8):806-807. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.0954