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Should periampullary adenocarcinomas be classified by histopathologic phenotype (intestinal vs pancreaticobiliary) rather than anatomic location?
In this analysis of medical records of 510 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma, histopathologic phenotype was independently associated with overall survival, while anatomic location was not. Those with pancreaticobiliary-type cancers of the duodenum, ampulla, or distal common bile duct had pathologic features and survival similar to those with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Classifying periampullary adenocarcinomas by histopathologic phenotype rather than anatomic location more accurately estimates prognosis and may better guide adjuvant treatment.
Patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas have widely variable survival. These cancers are traditionally categorized by their anatomic location of origin, namely, the duodenum, ampulla, distal common bile duct (CBD), or head of the pancreas. However, they can be alternatively subdivided histopathologically into intestinal or pancreaticobiliary (PB) types, which may more accurately estimate prognosis.
To identify factors associated with survival in patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas and to compare survival between those having intestinal-type or PB-type cancers originating from the duodenum, ampulla, or distal CBD with those having pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
Design, Setting, and Participants
This study was a retrospective analysis of medical records in a prospectively maintained database. Three pathologists separately evaluated histopathologic phenotypes at a university-based tertiary referral center. Study participants were all patients (N = 510) who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma between January 1995 and December 2014.
Main Outcome and Measure
This study identified 510 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.1 [10.9] years; 245 female [48%]) who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinomas: 13 duodenal, 110 ampullary, 43 distal CBD, and 344 PDAC. The median overall survival was 61.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 22.0-111.0), 70.4 (IQR, 26.7-147.7), 40.6 (IQR, 15.2-59.6), and 31.4 (IQR, 17.3-86.3) months for patients with cancers of the duodenum, ampulla, distal CBD, or pancreas, respectively (P = .01), indicating a significant difference between the 4 tumor anatomic locations. Most duodenal (61.5% [8 of 13]) and ampullary (51.8% [57 of 110]) cancers were intestinal type, and most distal CBD tumors were PB type (86.0% [37 of 43]). Those with intestinal-type duodenal, ampullary, or distal CBD adenocarcinomas had longer median overall survival than those with PB type (71.7 vs 33.3 months, P = .02) or PDAC (31.4 months, P = .003). There was no survival difference between PB-type cancers and PDAC (33.3 vs 31.4 months, P = .66). On multivariable analysis, histologic grade (hazard ratio [HR], 1.98; 95% CI, 1.56-2.52; P < .001), histopathologic phenotype (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.16-2.64; P = .008), and nodal status (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.12-1.87; P = .05) were significantly associated with survival, while anatomic location was not.
Conclusions and Relevance
Histopathologic phenotype is a better prognosticator of survival in patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas than tumor anatomic location. Those with PB-type duodenal, ampullary, or distal CBD adenocarcinomas have survival similar to those with PDAC.
Williams JL, Chan CK, Toste PA, Elliott IA, Vasquez CR, Sunjaya DB, Swanson EA, Koo J, Hines OJ, Reber HA, Dawson DW, Donahue TR. Association of Histopathologic Phenotype of Periampullary Adenocarcinomas With Survival. JAMA Surg. Published online October 12, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3466