DURING MY surgical residency at the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, in the 1950s, in addition to the daily duties required by the training program, I was involved with the development of the first successful bubble oxygenator for total bypass of the heart and lungs.1 The project was the brainchild of Leland Clark, Jr, PhD, a biochemist at the Fels Institute at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, who led the research team with James Helmsworth, MD, a thoracic surgeon, and Samuel Kaplan, MD, a cardiologist. Thomas Larsen, MD, was a surgical resident on rotation with the laboratory service.
Sherman RT. Necessity Is the Mother of Invention. Arch Surg. 1999;134(1):104. doi:10.1001/archsurg.134.1.104