Injuries at the hepatic duct confluence present the surgeon with a technically demanding repair, often combined with life-threatening sequelae such as sepsis and portal hypertension. Moreover, the possibility of litigation is ever present, even for those not responsible for the initial injury. In this review, we discuss the approach to patients with proximal bile duct injuries, with emphasis on preoperative evaluation and the technical aspects of biliary reconstruction.
Jarnagin WR, Blumgart LH. Operative Repair of Bile Duct Injuries Involving the Hepatic Duct Confluence. Arch Surg. 1999;134(7):769-775. doi:10.1001/archsurg.134.7.769