Offner and associates, by way of a retrospective review of trauma patients, have attempted to add to the evidence that sex hormones affect the immune response. There is relatively strong and increasing evidence in experimental animals for differences between the sexes with respect to immune responsiveness. The authors provide a nice review of that accumulated evidence. They also review the somewhat less convincing studies to date suggesting clinically significant sex differences in immune responsiveness in humans.
Wisner D. Invited Critique: Male Gender is a Risk Factor for Major Infections After Surgery. Arch Surg. 1999;134(9):940. doi:10.1001/archsurg.134.9.940