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July 1921


Arch Surg. 1921;3(1):230-244. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1921.01110070243012

In this special field of surgery the number of cases is surprisingly large. The subject is most interesting and presents many problems. The operative measures reach the highest plane of reconstructive surgery.

Sentiment often leads to ill advised effort; but in these cases the appeal for help is strong and the satisfaction of success immeasurable. The results as regards looks and function are vital to the patient. It is imperative that the profession pay more attention to those so afflicted and that those most interested agree or approximately agree on several debated questions.

EMBRYOLOGY  The embryology of the deformity is well established and is reviewed in various books and articles notably by Berry and Legg1 and by Brophy.2 Karl Grünberg3 presents a very complete study of the embryology of man and of other animals. Fraeser4 reviews the subject and explains many anatomic facts, at the same

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