Nearly a decade has passed since interest in the controversy over the emptying of the gallbladder was reawakened. During this time much has been said on both sides of the question. Any one familiar with current literature is aware that at present opinion is so divided that it seems impossible to reconcile the various views. Opinion is divided not only among clinicians, but among those who have carried out experimental work, as Levine1 has pointed out. In fact, the major controversy at present exists in the group that has studied the mechanism of the gallbladder in the experimental laboratory.
On one side one finds Sweet,2 Halpert,3 Demel and Brummelkamp,4 and Blond,5 who are the chief advocates of the theory that the gallbladder does not empty through the cystic duct; on the other side, Elman and McMaster,6 Whittaker,7 Higgins and Mann,8 Ivy and
RAVDIN IS, MORRISON JL. GALLBLADDER FUNCTIONI. THE CONTRACTILE FUNCTION OF THE GALLBLADDER. Arch Surg. 1931;22(5):810–828. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1931.01160050121007