Amniotic Origin of Deformities of the Limbs.
—Hellner1 studied a series of congenital malformations and amputations. He concluded that while amniotic bands could have been the cause of some of the deformities, defects in the mesenchymal tissue had to be considered as a cause in others. Absence of limbs could be produced experimentally by intra-uterine ligation of the limbs of embryos. To accomplish this it was found necessary to interrupt the circulation completely. Fractures in utero healed much as in extra-uterine life. While fibrous union of fractures was observed in a few instances, its frequency did not seem unusual to the observers.
—Urechia and his co-workers2 reported a case of paramyotonia. This disease was characterized by rigid contractures of one or more limbs excited by temperature changes or other stimuli. These contractures lasted from a few minutes to several hours and were followed by
KUHNS JG, CAVE EF, ROBERTS SM, BARR JS, FREIBERG JA, MILGRAM JE, STIRLING RI, WILSON PD. FIFTY-FIRST REPORT OF PROGRESS IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY. Arch Surg. 1933;27(4):807-816. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1933.01170100181011