—Congenital flatfoot gives a varied clinical and roentgenologic picture according to Krukenberg.1 A deforming prenatal force pushes the forepart of the foot upward. This produces a certain amount of bowing of the bones of the foot and brings the whole foot into valgus and calcaneus. Treatment consists of correcting the calcaneus with a plaster cast. This treatment is continued for about seven months. Treatment applied early gives the best functional results. Operative correction may be required in older children. Diagnosis is made by the clinical picture of persistent valgus and calcaneus and by roentgenograms which show a vertical axis for the astragalus and a crossing of this axis with the axis of the os calcis. Associated congenital deformities are common.
Congenital Supination Deformity of the Forefoot.
—Hohmann2 describes a supination deformity of the forefoot observed at birth, normal relations existing in the posterior part
KUHNS JG, CAVE EF, ROBERTS SM, BARR JS, JOPLIN RJ, FREIBERG JA, MILGRAM JE, STIRLING RI. SIXTIETH REPORT OF PROGRESS IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY. Arch Surg. 1936;33(1):168–186. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1936.01190010171012