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December 1939


Author Affiliations

From the Surgical Hunterian Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Arch Surg. 1939;39(6):959-972. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1939.01200180060005

In 1931 Firor1 described a method for crossing the circulations of dogs by means of an end to end anastomosis (according to Carrel's technic) of the carotid artery of one dog and the jugular vein of another, and vice versa.2 No anticoagulant was required. Firor found this a reliable method for providing adequate mixing of the blood and made certain physiologic observations during the procedure. The methods which had been previously used were reviewed3 and attention was called to the fields of investigation in which these procedures had been employed. Recent studies involving the use of cross circulation4 have suggested the need for additional information concerning the accompanying physiologic changes, especially the alterations in plasma and blood volume, the changes in blood pressure and the influence of such changes on the blood volumes, and the rapidity and completeness of mixing of the blood.


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