Although congenital elevation of the scapula was described in 1863 by Eulenburg,1 the name of Sprengel,2 who reported 4 cases in 1891 and who thought that his was the first description of the condition, commonly is given to the deformity. Sprengel's report was preceded also by an excellent description of a case, including autopsy observations and an interesting discussion of the significance of the omovertebral connection, by Willet and Walsham3 in 1880. They reported a second case in 1883.4 Since then the condition has attracted much attention, and many interesting papers have been written about it, notably those by Horwitz,5 Grieg6 and Schrock.7 Apparently little remains to be added to the knowledge of the subject except development of a more satisfactory method of treating the deformity.
There can be little doubt that this is a true congenital deformity due to a defect in
DeFOREST SMITH A. CONGENITAL ELEVATION OF THE SCAPULA. Arch Surg. 1941;42(3):529-536. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1941.01210090078006