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Article
May 1943

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN KNEE JOINT

Author Affiliations

PORTLAND, MAINE
From the Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Pathology, Harvard Medical School and the Children's Hospital, Boston.

Arch Surg. 1943;46(5):705-719. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1943.01220110121021
Abstract

My interest in developmental and acquired pathologic disturbances of the meniscuses of the knee joint prompted me to seek an answer to the variations seen. I was desirous chiefly of learning the origin and time of appearance of the meniscuses and of the synovial membrane and their relationship to one another. The current textbooks and available literature were inadequate and confusing on these points because of widespread disagreement among various authors. The concept of the development of the knee joint varied according to the approach, whether from the point of view of embryology or that of comparative anatomy. The present study is based on embryologic observations and study of human anatomic specimens alone.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY  In 1887 Sutton1 explained the origin of the intra-articular structures by the indrawing of extra-articular ligaments with the assumption of ability to flex the joint. The meniscuses were said to be derived from the

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