ONE OF the major problems in the development of a plasma substitute has been the elimination of toxic properties inherent in the substitute or produced in its processing. A number of proposed plasma substitutes known to increase the plasma volume such as acacia, pectin, globin and bovine albumin have been abandoned only because of these toxic properties.
In the early years of World War II several gelatins were studied extensively as substitutes for plasma. One of these, a preparation designated as Knox P-20, is the subject of a special report from the National Research Council published in 1944 in The Journal of the American Medical Association,1 which stated that a gelatin of the Knox P-20 type is of optimal value in the treatment of hemorrhage and shock. This report also stated that "many repeated injections in animals have been given without evidence, histologic or clinical, of toxicity or irreversible
Koop CE, Ratcliffe HL, Michie AJ. INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF GELATIN AND HISTOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE KIDNEY. Arch Surg. 1949;59(2):185-188. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1949.01240040190001