The etiological factors accounting for symptoms persisting or following cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease can be classified as calculi in the biliary ducts,1,2 stricture of the common duct,3,4 surgical factors,5 and re-formed gallbladder, with or without calculi.6,7 Pericholedochal neuromata,8 long cystic duct stump,9 acute and recurring pancreatitis,10 spasm,10 fibrosis,11 or anomalies of the sphincter of Oddi12 have also been implicated. Other factors, namely, adhesions,13 anomalies of the biliary and pancreatic ducts,12 neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater,14 bacterial sensitivity,15 and psychosomatic elements8 have also been mentioned. Upper abdominal symptoms following the use of sodium iodipamide (Cholagrafin)16 in intravenous cholangiography have been reported.
The purpose of this paper is to report an additional factor that may be classified as chemical, namely, the use of sodium o-iodohippurate, as Medopaque-H. This radiopaque material has been responsible for
HODGE J, BARRICK C, McLAUGHLIN E. Biliary Dyskinesia in T-Tube Cholangiography. AMA Arch Surg. 1958;76(3):361-364. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1958.01280210031006