Reported mortality rates resulting from liver trauma have varied widely: 90% (Krieg,15 1936) and 33.3% (Glas, Musselman, and Campbell,7 1955), hemorrhage being the primary cause of death in the great majority of these patients. This fact was well illustrated by Glas et al., who reported that the average whole-blood replacement required in their cases of liver trauma was 2000 cc.With the above facts in mind, we felt that a better method for the control of hemorrhage and prevention of biliary fistulae and infection was needed if further improvements and results were to be enjoyed in the surgical resection and repair of liver tissue. The method which has evolved from this experimental project involves the use of formalinized polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) sponge as a hemostatic membrane.
With the increased interest in the resectional and reparative surgery of the liver, a short historical review seems applicable to
JONES TW, NYHUS LM, HARKINS HN. Formalinized Polyvinyl Alcohol (Ivalon) Sponge in Repair of Liver Wounds. AMA Arch Surg. 1958;76(4):583-588. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1958.01280220103021