The absence of one or both testes from the expected location in the scrotum of an infant is an abnormality which is usually discovered promptly by most mothers. It occurs in 1 in 10 newborn infants, but spontaneous descent during the first year of life reduces this incidence to about 1 in 50. These figures suggest that orchiopexy during this period is not indicated. A decreased rate of spontaneous descent obtains from the age of one year until adolescence, and in this interval the question of whether to perform orchiopexy must be considered.
Much emphasis has been placed on the importance of distinguishing between a testis which has not been in the scrotum and one which at the time of examination is merely retracted by vigorous cremaster fibers in response to chilling or fright. Information obtained from an observant mother, repeated examination of the patient, and the state of development
KEELEY JL. Orchiopexy. AMA Arch Surg. 1959;79(6):994-998. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1959.04320120136016