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Article
August 1963

Direct Auscultation of the Heart

Author Affiliations

ST. LOUIS
From the Heart Sound Laboratory, the Center for Cardiovascular Research, Department of Internal Medicine, and the Department of Surgery, St. Louis University.

Arch Surg. 1963;87(2):257-264. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1963.01310140065013
Abstract

In 42 patients with congenital or acquired heart disease, we have recorded the heart sounds before and after operation together with direct auscultation of the heart exposed at operation. This was done to clarify certain poorly understood aspects of cardiac murmurs, such as their persistence after apparently adequate repair of the underlying defect. Our experience has provided some practical guides in surgical treatment of cardiac lesions.

Methods  Studies at operation involved the application of a sterile, special microphone to parts of the heart and great vessels before and after operative treatment of the lesion. These operative studies were compared with the preoperative findings and with those recorded after about a week when the chest dressings had been removed.Heart sound recordings were made simultaneously on the Sanborn Twin-Beam and on the Cambridge heart sound magnetic tape recorder with oscilloscopic projection. Before entering the surgical field, the examiner was equipped with

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