IMPROVED emergency care for the critically ill or injured requires physician leadership in community-wide teaching and organization of (1) first aid; (2) ambulance transportation; and (3) hospital emergency room coverage. Airway obstruction, respiratory depression, and cardiac arrest from unconsciousness per se (eg, head injury, poisoning) and from such conditions as drowning, coronary occlusion, electric shock, and others can often be prevented or reversed if the rescuer is trained in the proper techniques, begins resuscitation immediately, and continues resuscitation during transportation to the hospital.1-5 Modern inhalation therapy and resuscitation during transportation are often hampered by inadequate ambulance design and equipment.
Personal experience with the deficiencies of existing ambulance design, experience with many resuscitations outside of ambulances, established principles of resuscitation, and successful use abroad of some of the modifications recommended1,5 prompted us to write this paper. Locally, appropriate modifications were made on a model ambulance* (Fig 1 and 2),
SAFAR P, BROSE RA. Ambulance Design and Equipment for Resuscitation. Arch Surg. 1965;90(3):343-348. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1965.01320090021006