Most cardiologists and surgeons interested in coronary arterial disease agree that a mammary implant that gives large collateral channels to the coronary arteries is more successful than one that does not. Although it seems logical to assume that a patient with good collateral has a better life expectancy than a comparable patient without it, there so far has been very little data to support this assumption.
Two series of pedicle patients were reviewed to see whether there is a trend developing that would lend such support and to find out whether multiple implants gave good collateral to more areas of the heart than single pedicles did.
Single pedicles were made from the mammary artery and adjacent vein, connective tissue, and muscle. Such pedicles were implanted in 104 patients. The operative mortality was 8.7%. An additional 9.6% died between the time of discharge from the hospital after the pedicle
Sewell WH. The Results of Triple Pedicles Compared to Single Mammary Implants. Arch Surg. 1969;99(2):286-288. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1969.01340140158024