Selected patients with duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to one of four surgical procedures. The procedures were vagotomy and drainage (VD); vagotomy and antrectomy (VA); vagotomy and hemigastrectomy (VH); and gastric resection alone (RA). A total of 1,358 patients were entered into the randomized study; during the same period, 1,207 patients underwent operation for duodenal ulcer after being excluded from the randomized study. In addition, 423 patients were entered from hospitals that did not choose to randomize. Age, indications for operation, associated diseases, and operative findings have been presented and the merits of randomization in surgical studies demonstrated.
Johnson WD, Grizzle JE, Postlethwait RW. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study of Surgery for Duodenal UlcerI. Description and Evaluation of Method of Randomization. Arch Surg. 1970;101(3):391-395. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340270039011