The circulatory effects of glucagon were studied in hemorrhagic and endotoxic shock. Glucagon administration had several significant effects—increase in cardiac output, decrease in arterial pressure, decrease in peripheral resistance, increase in heart rate, increase in stroke volume following hemorrhage but not after endotoxin administration, and a tendency to increase central venous pressure. From this study, it appears that glucagon is a beneficial agent in improving the cardiovascular status of experimental animals subjected to hemorrhagic and endotoxic shock.
Bower MG, Okude S, Jolley WB, Smith LL. Hemodynamic Effects of GlucagonFollowing Hemorrhagic and Endotoxic Shock in the Dog. Arch Surg. 1970;101(3):411-415. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340270059016