Four cell-free solutions were evaluated in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock in a rabbit shock model. The solutions used consisted of two colloid solutions; glutamyl polypeptide (GPP) and dextran 40 (low molecular weight dextran); and two crystalloid solutions: lactated Ringer's solution and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) mixed with equal parts of saline. The polyglutamic acid, GPP in the concentration used, proved to be considerably more effective, as measured by animal survival, than either of the other three.
Wolcott MW, Malinin TI. Infusion of Cell-Free Fluids Into Rabbits in Hemorrhagic ShockI. Study in Survival With Chemically Defined Fluids. Arch Surg. 1970;101(4):513-515. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340280065016