Three cases of severe bronchospasm during thoracotomy are presented. The probability that bronchospasm is a common etiological factor in both massive collapse and hyperexpansion of the lung is discussed. Asthma and mitral stenosis appear to be important associations. Peribronchial infiltration with local anesthetic has been shown to be of considerable value in controlling the untoward effects of severe acute bronchospasm occurring during thoracotomy.
Bennett DJ, Torda TA, Horton DA, Wright JS. Severe Bronchospasm Complicating Thoracotomy. Arch Surg. 1970;101(5):555-557. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340290011003