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The dumping syndrome is a symptom complex observed clinically after partial gastrectomy or other operations that interfere with the pyloric sphincter mechanism.
These symptoms come on during or within 30 minutes of a meal and involve abnormal changes in the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, the former including flushing, sweating, palpitations, vertigo, weakness, and syncope, and the later, abdominal fullness, nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea.
This syndrome was first described in the early part of this century following a gastroenterostomy, and was later named "the dumping syndrome" because the rapid emptying of the stomach was thought to cause the symptoms. The term "dumping" has persisted because of the lack of a better term and also because it helps differentiate this particular entity from other types of dysfunction following gastric surgery which are treated differently, namely afferent or efferent loop obstructions, small gastric remnant, postvagotomy diarrhea, nutritional disturbances, and recurrent ulcer.
BERK JL. The Dumping Syndrome. Arch Surg. 1971;102(1):88-89. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350010090024